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arnol encomendero davalos


Former member of the Advisory Council (Board of Directors) of ICA AMERICAS 1995-2009


Director of the International Journal America Cooperativa.


Current CEO of COOPETROPERU based in Lima, Peru


Author of five Books on Applied Professional Research of Co-operative Development and Social Economy


Böök, Sven Ake “Valores Cooperativos para un Mundo en Cambio”. Spanish edition. ICA. October 1996


MacPherson, Ian “Statement of Co-operative Identity and Principles.” ICA Manchester 1995.


ILO. Recommendation 193 on Promotion of Co-operatives. ICA AMERICAS 2002


North, Douglas. Marco Institucional para el Desarrollo Económico, Apoyo,  Lima, Peru 1995


Rodrígues, Roberto La Segunda Ola Cooperativa. 2001


Enomendero Arnold. La Economía de Mercado y el Desafío de los Valores Cooperativos. 3rd Edition. Nov. 2010. Lima, Peru


En GOOGLE:Search:
Arnold Encomendero Dávalos
Link: www.arnoldencomendero.com



por que creer el el cooperativismo
By Dr. Arnold Encomendero Dávalos

The unblemished truth is that the globalization of the economy, while not a pest, is also not a PANACEA. It has caused (to thea naked eye) a new wave of economic concentration and social exclusion. The result of this political, human, social and economic contradiction, is that in 2008 there was a major international financial crisis which, by failing to resolve the situation with realistic and strong economic and financial policies, has meant that today we are on the verge of a global recession.

Such is the dimension of the post-crisis, that Kenneth Rogoff of Harvard University said (amidst the uncertainty and obscurity of the global financial situation) that the biggest deficit in the 2008 financial crisis was not CREDIT, but CREDIBILITY. In other words, markets can adjust to a reduction in global growth, but cannot deal with an increasing loss of confidence in the leadership and in a political class disconnected from reality. The particularity of this crisis (Rogoff emphasizes) lies precisely in that it will converge anemic growth and excessive borrowing. In this regard, Bill Cross stated: “The over-indebtedness is only a symptom and the disease is the weakness of aggregate demand, i.e. the lack of consumption or investment.”

As a corollary of this academic turning point, the economist Nouriel Rubini pointed out: "Never before has the world faced a crisis of this magnitude with such weak LEADERS." And professor Daniel Rodrik, alarmed by the governmental crisis in developed countries, said: "Perhaps for the first time in modern history, the future of the global economy is in the hands of poor countries ..."

rol de las cooperativas

The answer was given by Roberto Rodrigues , former President of the worldwide International Co-operative Alliance, ICA, who said that "financial and economic concentration and social exclusion have been factors that fueled the growth of Co-operatives in the mid-nineteenth century. This is why,” he remarked, “the Co-operative movement emerges with full force in the world, becoming a more consistent bridge between the market and social welfare, in line with the seventh Co-operative principle ."
The figures speak louder than words. According to ICA, the Co-operative movement has spread across the planet, encompassing an estimated 40% of the world’s population. Today, there are 800 million people affiliated to co-operatives of all types and sectors, which together with their families come to nearly 2 billion people, creating 100 million jobs.
These simple examples show clearly that Co-operativism is a "practical solutions workshop" to achieve development in peace, making it possible for millions of people to rise above poverty by their own talent and effort and shared values of mutual trust and confidence." And it is that the Co-operative doctrine and practice integrate members by sharing values, products, services and dividends for the common benefit.
This leads me to reaffirm what is already maintained in my book, The Co-operative Reason.

“There is no friendlier way anywhere in the world than co-operative action to make of human solidarity a dignified and productive relationship in the interests of mutual support, making human exchange an honest and honorable transaction, and Social Capital an economic value protected by mutual trust.”

As these factors are strengthened, the Co-operative's contribution will have a greater incidence both qualitative and quantitatively. Quite rightly, Sven Ake Böök, in defense of the scope of co-operative values, stressed that "since human beings are imperfect, they can only reach their full potential for viable development by working in solidarity with other human beings .”
With this technical and practical argument, it is an indisputable and undeniable truth that the mobilizing capacity of co-operativism is useful for a better human social and economic achievement, as a self-generating source of social capital, thanks to the moral trust of its members.
But we must also recognize that the co-operative doctrine and practice is surrounded by dark interests that undermine the entire joint force. These include: permissive consumption, speculative investment, and anomie . But these shadows never will extinguish the co-operative light that shines on life in peace for common development, since co-operativism has its own defense and those of us who practice a co-operative life are proud of what we are and what we do, with all our strengths and weaknesses, because we recognize and ardently fight to overcome them, from the poorest village to the most modern city. And also because the co-operative defense uses the weapons of peace and mutual assistance. Never have physical or institutional violence been used to make headway in society. Never have the pages of Co-operative history been stained with a drop of blood, much less been the cause of tears among children, youth, adults, seniors, men and women with any gesture or act of violence to accelerate development.
Co-operativism is aware of and responsible for our present and future, and we believe that the doctrinal principles and benefits of Co-operativism cannot be imposed by force nor forced arbitrarily from the top down or from the outside in. And this is because the co-operative institution is a conscious and voluntary act that unites small resources to achieve economies of scale.


And it must be so, because the process of co-operative development is real and effective, and at the same time a promise and opportunity to boost social cohesion with associative and personal inclusion.
As MacPherson acknowledges, “The co-operative movement is a movement of perpetual promise. A movement of endless transformation: it never rests satisfied with what has been achieved.”
In line with this, the local and global co-operative experience shows us that BELIEF and TRUST in co-operativism IS and SHOULD BE an act of conscience. And, the co-operative awareness is TO BE from one and with others, in a mutual presence, to think and act for the common good.
For these and many other reasons, and from my research experience of the formal essence and work for Co-operative Development within ICA AMERICAS and beyond — as well as 22 years of Co-operative management practice —and in light of the opinions of leaders, consultants, academics, policy makers and managerial leaders— we have come to understand that there are TEN GOOD REASONS TO BELIEVE in  Co-operativism. This makes us look to the future not as an extension of the past but as FUTURE, which requires a present commitment to respond effectively to the challenges imposed on us by the crisis and post crisis of the global financial situation with all its consequences and disaster, unfitting for a humanity that is suffering from poverty and unemployment  aggravated by destructive environmental pollution. And worse, terrified by premeditated, treacherous and cruel crime that not only includes robbery and kidnapping but the killing of innocent people.
The timing is right to remind the world of the famous phrase of the French biotechnologist Pierre Lacoste, who said: “Humanity is everything, apart from it there is no good hope.” In short, everything depends on  mankind itself, which not only has to be concerned about human quality and its best existence, but deal with it. For good reason,  Amartya Sen, Nobel Laureate in Economics, affirmed: “At the end of the day, it is man who is responsible for what he plans and undertakes and for the incorrect handling of the economy.”
It is because of this that  the State must not only be a good regulator but an effective supervisor of economic exchange  in the marketplace.

crisis mundial

And how does one answer the question, asked sincerely or ironically by unbelievers or common enemies of the doctrine and praxis of solidarity, WHY BELIEVE IN CO-OPERATIVISM? As cooperativists by conviction and from the heart, “with the mind of a manager and the soul of a leader” as conceptualized by C. Hickman, very“proud of who we are and what we do,” we give the following answer:
WE BELIEVE AND WE SHOULD BELIEVE IN CO-OPERATIVISM AS A partnership model of mutual benefit, for the following reasons:

1. Because of its ideological unity and coherent doctrine
2. Because it is a social business model focused on people
3. Because it shapes and accumulates capital stock for the benefit of its members
4. Because it allows Development that is unrestricted and inseparable from economic freedom,
    political freedom and cultural freedom.
5. Because it promotes social inclusion, creating employment and associated personal
6. Because it institutionalizes human solidarity in social development and continuing and
    sustainable economic growth.
7. Because it disciplines household savings to guide investment and inclusive development.
8. Because it works well within a framework of economic pluralism.
9. Because it correlates individual freedom with solidarity, and social justice with economic
10. Because it has a self-organizing system that reconciles ethical values with democratic
11. Because it promotes the re-conceptualization of property, power and business organization in
      favor of solidarity economics.
12. Because it educates the person for a better economic exchange, and creates value in the
     company, with transparent management and social responsibility.

We realize and recognize that our Co-operative credibility needs to be worked locally with a global perspective.
As highlighted by Ian MacPherson, “Co-operatives are most effective when they provide people with a better control over their lives.” This is logical because it agrees with the trite saying of Co-operative dynamics: “people are our most important resource.”
Within this concept, theory and reality confirm that cultural development through Co-operative work —such as in the “Collective Learning School”— helps to raise self-esteem, cultivate values and transmit them, build respect for institutions, and integrate the family, business and civil society. But no one can object, in the current context —economically and financially distressed and greedy— that the most valuable input by the Co-operative to economic and social thought is that it is an applied doctrine that has enabled and enables unrestricted development that is inseparable from the three great liberties that have always divided people: Economic Freedom, Political Freedom and Cultural Freedom.
This valuable contribution leads us to deduce that the long-sought economic development with social inclusion and equity can only be achieved through a process of economic pluralism where peaceful coexistence is institutionalized with clear, stable and just rules to do inclusive business in common, both in the domestic market and external market, with credibility, transparency and certainty, without forgetting that Friedrich Nietzsche said that it is not strength but perseverance of high sentiments that makes men greater.
If the world is suffering from many crises, it is time to turn these into the best opportunity to defend human life and build development in peace, rescuing the values of solidarity and ethics over ambition, financial and trade speculation, organized violence, profit, and social inequality.


¡Co-operative truth is your truth, our common truth ….!
¡To believe in it is a reason of life!......
¡Believe and make believe, is a responsible commitment!......
¡Plant that truth in the mind of the world!

Lima-Peru, September 2011

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